One Foothill Farmers Perspective on the 2019 Harvest

Part 1, 2 and 3

With the 2019 harvest and crush now in the books, it’s time to start prognosticating as to the overall quality, or at least that’s a common request in the tasting room. But before we start down that interesting combination of personal taste, guessing and marketing, I think it’s better that we talk about the challenges and benefits of the entire growing season. And I think we also need to note also that my take on the vintage may not be commonly embraced.

58790365_10155751752271525_3440757128992653312_oSo here are a couple of the facts that need to be laid out before we even start. First, we are 100% Estate Grown, which means we use only our own fruit that we have 100% control over. Secondly, most of our vines are 20-45+ years old. Thirdly, we employ our own crew for the entire year…and they’ve been working for us for years. Lastly, we farm naturally (with only organic products) in the vineyard, thus potentially limiting our “arsenal” of sprays with unusual weather conditions.

With those important facts now in the discussion, we also need to separate this 2019 growing year into Spring, Summer and Fall as each had its own set of impacting aspects. So let’s move on!

Spring

From the point of view of a grape-grower with vineyards in the higher “mountain” elevations, the spring conditions were wonderful if not interesting. Our number one concern in spring is frost. But with the relatively late bud-break combined with relatively moderate night and morning temperatures, we had no frost burn anywhere in any of our vineyards.

59614191_10155755023336525_2628343105513848832_oBud break in late April to early May did start the vineyards off, though, a little late, thus projecting a slightly later than normal harvest (as compared to the last decade, but much more normal for the 1980’s and 1990’s).

The major challenge for the spring season, however, was the rains in the month of May. Our average rainfall is somewhere about 2 inches for the month with plentiful sunshine. The May of 2019, though, gave us over 7 inches of rain and cool and cloudy conditions throughout the month.

Now farming vineyards with only organic products can really be an issue here. Organic products for fighting mildew stay on the proverbial “outside” of the vine (as opposed to non-organic sterile inhibitors which are absorbed into the vine to prevent mildew). The issue with this is that every rain would wash off whatever we had sprayed, leaving the vine unprotected. And with the rains spaced every couple days, it didn’t make any sense 62091581_10155825944371525_6544781713808031744_oto apply new sprays as they would just wash off (and that’s expensive too!).

In our favor, though, were three things. The main thing was that temperatures remained fairly cool (under 65 degrees for extended periods) which does not provide a good environment for mildew to grow. Add to this that most rain events were also followed by breezy conditions. Mildew needs temperatures between 70-85 degrees combined with a moist, protected setting. That’s the opposite to cool and breezy.

58734099_10155738661171525_2595037575458586624_oLastly, we’ve been farming these vineyards since they were planted. Our diligence in keeping mildew to almost non-existence in the past meant that there was less inoculum source available now. And finally, our crew took this time to aggressively open up the vines by removing lots of basal leaves near the fruit. With the breezes now, the vines dried out quickly, preventing the environment for mildew. Once the rains stopped, we started applying the sulfur/mineral oils for the rest of the season.

We made it through almost unscathed, but I know other vineyards that were not so “lucky”.

Summer

The spring turned to summer, and we could easily see that the harvest season would start a little late. The flowering season in late May to early June cemented this idea. Temperatures were moderate during flowering, providing for a very nice set (potential crop) in the vineyard. But even with normal summer temperatures, a vineyard in our area looks for about 100 days from flowering until harvest. And we were already late out of the gate with the cool spring!

But even the summertime temperatures seemed to remain cooler than “normal” without the intense spikes of heat we can sometimes endure. For grapes, this means a long and drawn-out maturing to veraison when the berries soften and turn color. This bodes extremely well for overall quality and development.

Now the question was, “How much crop should we let the vines carry and still insure a harvest before the rains of winter.” So we started dropping crop in the Grenache, the shoulders on the Zinfandels, touching fruit in the Marsanne, etc. We did everything to make sure we harvested, but also that we didn’t drop too much. It’s a guessing game, but we did guess right this time!

With the moderate summertime temperatures came an increased mildew pressure in the vineyards. Heat above 100 degrees can kill mildew, but that was not to come this season. (In fact at our 3,000 ft elevation, we never have the heat to kill mildew. Our mildew pressure is always amongst the highest in the state, which on the good side means we’realways prepared for years like 2019!)

And remember those May rains?  Well, that additional moisture back in May promoted canopy growth, making more leaves, thus preventing airflow through the vine and then exacerbating the mildew issue. Whew! However for us, all that added handwork our crew did in spring was really starting to pay off. Our vine canopy remained mostly open needing just some additional leaf removal around the bunches.

The only risk with summertime leaf removal is the chance of getting sunburn on the fruit. Imagine the difference for your own skin of slowly acclimating to direct sun exposure versus just doing it all in one day? Grapes are no different, and they need cooler temperatures and less intense sun exposure (usually in June) to prepare for August’s direct hot sunshine. But timing is everything, and we had only a bit of sunburn in the Barbera. It desiccates the fruit and can impact color and tonnage, but luckily the amount was not too great.

With temperatures barely getting into the 80’s during a good portion of August, the fruit was maturing wonderfully slowly. This could be the vintage of the decade for us…as long as the fall weather held and we didn’t have an early winter. Farming is the ultimate gamble!

Fall

As luck would have it, the fall weather was spectacular. Well, kind of.

September was an interesting month, to say the least. The late August and early September temperatures (which often can be very hot) stayed mild and beautiful. For those battling mildew, there was no relief. For us, though, the potential quality of the grapes with is great weather was exciting. But remember that it’s also starting to be a race with the clock for finishing harvest before the weather changes.

And then the weather changed! Two storms in September pretty much at the beginning of picking brought us 2.6 inches of rain. That’s a lot for September and really could throw a wrench into the workings of harvest.

Truly, the biggest issue of getting rain during harvest is that the grape clusters get all wet. All those nooks and crannies get moisture in them, and with normal “warm” fall conditions makes for a perfect host for bunch rot (humid + warm = rot). And the thinner the skin of the grape variety combined with the tightness of the cluster, the greater the chance for botrytis, sour rot, black rot, etc. Zinfandel is particularly prone to these rots, and we still had 66 tons of Zin out on the vine.

I keep going back, though, to the importance of knowing your vineyards and how much work is done during the growing season. The way one combats these bunch rots is to make sure the vines dry out quickly. You hope that God brings in dry winds after the rain events to help. But of course, these breezes only dry out the clusters if your vines are open enough to let the air flow through. Now remember all that leaf work our crew did earlier in the year? Now it was paying off again in spades.

And we had one more bit of luck come our way. After all the rain, the temperatures at our high elevation remained relatively cool (like in the 50’s and 60’s). Bunch rots need some warmth to really get going, and this just wasn’t enough.

So the vines dried out, we were blessed with some cool temperatures, and there was no bunch rot to be found in any of our vines. If anything, the rains washed the season’s dust off the leaves, making the photosynthesis potential better for late season ripening.

And ripen they did. The weather held with incredibly moderate (not hot or cold) temperatures. This in itself elongated the harvest season letting us pick over a seven week period. Not only did this promote extended hang-time (thus potentially improving flavor development), but it also allowed us to “sanefully” determine when to pick each variety at its best. There was not rushing at all.

Now let’s talk about two things that 20 years ago I would have never thought would have been farming issues. The first is wildfires (or more specifically smoke), and the second is mandatory power shutdowns.

Our region had very little fire action this year, especially compared to the coastal areas. Parts of Sonoma’s wine districts actually had to evacuate their wineries during harvest. For us, our impact was very little. During harvest after the rains, a small control burn near Caples Lake in the Sierras got out of control. Due to the wind patterns, we had several mornings of smoky conditions which run a potential risk of adding smoky characters to the wine (mostly red grapes still on the vine). We adjusted our periods of skin contact, making them shorter, and hopefully alleviating the impact.

Now the second issue—the PG&E power shutdowns. It’s amazing how important electricity is to wineries during harvest. Not only do we need it to run our destemmers to process picked fruit, but we need it for a whole host of aspects. Remember that fermenting wine is a living “organism” which needs care.

Pumpovers (taking the wine from the bottom of the tank and spreading it over the skins on the top) needs to be done once or twice a day during the fermentation. And when the right time comes to separate the wine from the skins, we need electricity for the wine presses.

But short shutdown can be counteracted with planning and maybe a generator. So no picking, and only minimal wine work was the rule of the day.

The one aspect harvest life that was difficult to manage, however, was temperature control. Fermenting grape juice has yeast changing sugar into alcohol while putting of CO2 and heat. Fruity white wines are generally fermented cool (58 degrees or so), and fermentation temperatures in red wines can actually get so hot that it will kill the yeast. Thus for wine quality, temperature control is probably the major technological improvement the wine industry has made in the last 300 years!

With planning, I was able to “over-chill” some tanks in preparation for the power shutdowns. This with fewer pumpovers, a generator, and no more than four days of outage at a time allowed us to come through this particular year of power issues. I can only imagine in the future, though, a year of multi-week power outages. (The off season will give us a chance to become power self-sufficient!)

But that’s for 2020!

Conclusions

So in a sentence, here’s the update for the 2019 vintage.

The 2019 vintage with all its challenges produced a solidly large quantity of crop with positively stunning quality…for us. That’s the caveat.  For us, meaning the vineyards of Madroña, Sumu Kaw, Enyé, Cardanini and Rucksack Cellars.

I personally know growers who did not pick their vineyards at all; some due to mildew and some due to lack of ripeness. I also know wineries who had to sort and throw out 50% of some grapes due to bunch rots.

But for us, it’s a spectacular vintage in the barrel right now. Do I have a couple of sluggish fermentations? Sure. Is there the potential for a hint of smoke in the Cab Sauvignon? Maybe. Do we run the risk of so many other producers having a bad year that the vintage inherits a horrible reputation? Sure. It happened in 1989 and 1998, if not 2010 and 2011 to some extent as well.

But we can only be responsible for that which we can control.

In the end, the unusual growing season seems to have given us fruit with better maturity and flavors at lower brix (sugar) levels. This will make wines with all the structure, fruit and balance we look for but at a lower alcohol.

And this is what could make 2019 the vintage of the decade–the potential for making truly exquisite world-class wines across the board!

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A Definitive 2019 Vintage Update and Recap

Part 1

With the 2019 harvest and crush now in the books, it’s time to start prognosticating as to the overall quality, or at least that’s a common request in the tasting room. But before we start down that interesting combination of personal taste, guessing and marketing, I think it’s better that we talk about the challenges and benefits of the entire growing season. And I think we also need to note also that my take on the vintage may not be commonly embraced.

58790365_10155751752271525_3440757128992653312_oSo here are a couple of the facts that need to be laid out before we even start. First, we are 100% Estate Grown, which means we use only our own fruit that we have 100% control over. Secondly, most of our vines are 20-45+ years old. Thirdly, we employ our own crew for the entire year…and they’ve been working for us for years. Lastly, we farm naturally (with only organic products) in the vineyard, thus potentially limiting our “arsenal” of sprays with unusual weather conditions.

With those important facts now in the discussion, we also need to separate this 2019 growing year into Spring, Summer and Fall as each had its own set of impacting aspects. So let’s move on!

Spring

From the point of view of a grape-grower with vineyards in the higher “mountain” elevations, the spring conditions were wonderful if not interesting. Our number one concern in spring is frost. But with the relatively late bud-break combined with relatively moderate night and morning temperatures, we had no frost burn anywhere in any of our vineyards.

59614191_10155755023336525_2628343105513848832_oBud break in late April to early May did start the vineyards off, though, a little late, thus projecting a slightly later than normal harvest (as compared to the last decade, but much more normal for the 1980’s and 1990’s).

The major challenge for the spring season, however, was the rains in the month of May. Our average rainfall is somewhere about 2 inches for the month with plentiful sunshine. The May of 2019, though, gave us over 7 inches of rain and cool and cloudy conditions throughout the month.

Now farming vineyards with only organic products can really be an issue here. Organic products for fighting mildew stay on the proverbial “outside” of the vine (as opposed to non-organic sterile inhibitors which are absorbed into the vine to prevent mildew). The issue with this is that every rain would wash off whatever we had sprayed, leaving the vine unprotected. And with the rains spaced every couple days, it didn’t make any sense 62091581_10155825944371525_6544781713808031744_oto apply new sprays as they would just wash off (and that’s expensive too!).

In our favor, though, were three things. The main thing was that temperatures remained fairly cool (under 65 degrees for extended periods) which does not provide a good environment for mildew to grow. Add to this that most rain events were also followed by breezy conditions. Mildew needs temperatures between 70-85 degrees combined with a moist, protected setting. That’s the opposite to cool and breezy.

58734099_10155738661171525_2595037575458586624_oLastly, we’ve been farming these vineyards since they were planted. Our diligence in keeping mildew to almost non-existence in the past meant that there was less inoculum source available now. And finally, our crew took this time to aggressively open up the vines by removing lots of basal leaves near the fruit. With the breezes now, the vines dried out quickly, preventing the environment for mildew. Once the rains stopped, we started applying the sulfur/mineral oils for the rest of the season.

We made it through almost unscathed, but I know other vineyards that were not so “lucky”.

Stay tuned for Part 2 – Coming Soon!

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Cookbook Club – I’ll NEVER ask for a small piece again!

We had so much fun Monday night!  Inspired by @thewinewife, I called a few friends and we created our own cookbook club!  Mary Dedrick, Kerry Dolan, Melissa Cowan, Tammy & Roy Amburgey, and us!  You absolutely should create one of your own!

Fluid in nature, here are the rules we have so far for our new club (since we just started out!).

  • Select a cookbook – We all have so many cookbooks just sitting around, with recipes that we want to try, but have never had the time to make. We each bring a few books, browse through them and then select one.  Then from that book, we each pick a recipe.  Since we all live close, we pass the one cookbook around, each using it and thus saving our money for ingredients!
  • Since we all work, so we don’t spend any time on the fancy table settings. We each bring our own dishes, utensils and glasses, keeping the clean-up to a minimum.
  • A person cannot select a recipe that they have prepared before.
  • We each select a recipe we are interested in preparing; we are not creating a menu, but rather an interesting “sampling” dinner.  NO STRESS is the name of the game!

That’s about it!  We pick a date, make our recipes, and GATHER!   As busy people, this evening was such a treat – an evening to experience new food and visit.  And of course, we are going to write-up what we found, take pictures and post them for others to enjoy!  You can do it too and use #cookbookclubmadrona

So – what did we do our first night?  We had our first meeting in September with an anticipated meeting in October.  However the power outages put a bit of a crimp on our evening, so we postponed until November.  The cookbook we selected for our first evening was “A Chef for All Seasons” by Gordon Ramsey.  The recipes we selected to prepare for our meal were

Honey-Soused Vegetables, Pumpkins & Pancetta risotto, Tomato and Parmesan Gratinee Tarts, Creamy Potato Soup with Parsley Chantilly, Marinated Tuna Salad and Caramelized Apple Tart.

Our first course combined the Potato Soup and the Honey-Soused Vegetables.  Tammy found the preparation for the potato soup different, where she had to bake the potatoes, and then shred them.  She wanted to use her emulsion blender the whole time, but the Continue reading

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A More Technical Grape Growing Report for 2019

2019 Wente Clone Chardonnay

I recently was contacted by a journalist regarding the more difficult growing conditions for grape farmers in the foothills this year. Her question was about mildew on the grapes and the potential need for wineries to throw out a lot of fruit. All wineries sort fruit when they are destemming and crushing, but mildew can be a real problem, often in the interior of the bunch where one doesn’t see it.

In any case, here is my response to her question, and our particular situation. By the way, all the work I mention about opening up the vine is also useful now when we get late rains. It helps dry the vine dry out quickly and makes rots and molds (like botrytis) less likely.  One last thing. Once the grapes go through veraison (where they soften, turn color and start accumulating sugar quickly), they are no longer susceptible to mildew. The vine is (on the leaves, etc.), but the actual grapes are not! Super important when you’re growing grapes! Continue reading

Posted in Paul's Blog Posts, Vineyard News | 6 Comments

What Happens When Your Distributor Goes Out of Business?

Over the last four decades, we’ve seen a lot of changes in the wine industry. Sure, we’ve seen restaurants come and go, wine shops come and go, and even other wineries come and go. But the real change has been how small, or rather boutique, wineries operate.

Back in the 1980’s, wineries would work with distributors across the country. Even we had distributors in 12 or 13 states including New York, Illinois, Indiana, Nevada, etc. Since the tasting room business (also known as DTC or “direct to consumer”) didn’t really exist, most wineries relied on selling their wines to distributors.

The three-tier system still exists today with a winery selling to a distributor, the distributor selling to the restaurant/store, and the restaurant/store selling to the consumer. This distributor would also have complete control of our product in their market. That’s part of the deal. Continue reading

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Douro River Cruise

PORTUGAL
The Enticing Douro River Cruise
11-night Lisbon Tour & Cruise: November 8-18, 2020
7-night Cruise Only: November 12-19, 2020

Douro Bodega and VineyardOur Madrona Vineyards Douro River Cruise of northern Portugal is now 32 strong! Most cabins are on a waitlist now, however you can register online with no deposit or obligation required.  IF and when your cabin clears you will be notified.  At that time you can choose to purchase and travel, or not.  There is a 4-night pre-cruise tour of Lisbon and Porto prior to boarding the ship AmaVida.

PINHAO – Alto Douro Valley

Our cruise along the winding Douro River is spectacular.  Boats on the river gleam in the sun.  Terraced vineyards, grand old quintas and little stone brick villages along the banks make this a truly magical ride.

Sandeman Port EstateThe Alto Douro Valley (“upper Douro”) is home to the oldest demarcated vineyards in the world, dating back over 2,000 year.  It was declared a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2001.  It’s a region with a Mediterranean climate, marked by hot, dry summers and cold winters.  Summer weather is generally warm to hot, with temperatures in the 80’s. However summer is a lovely, uncrowded time to experience this beautiful part of Portugal and taste the fabulous wines and ports produced in this region.

Pinhao town is a charming village of quiet cobbled streets and colorful narrow houses, situated in a perfect location at a wide bend in the river.  The surrounding terraced hillsides produce the world’s best port.  This is home to the great Portuguese wine estates of Sandeman, W.J. Graham, Taylor-Fladgate and other legendary port producers.  Old women in doorways chat away.  This is a proper rural European country town.

From Pinhao we will visit and enjoy a country lunch at Quinta da Avessada, a family owned winery famous for its hospitality.  The walk through their wine production facility is a stroll through centuries of Portuguese wine production in the Douro Valley, followed by a tastings at red wine producer Quinta do Seixo, then finishing at the Sandeman Estate.  The Sandeman 40 year old Tawny Port is extraordinary and the reasonable price will surprise you.  It’s well worth taking a bottle home.

TIP: The ship overnights here.  Weather permitting this is the best place on our cruise to enjoy a restaurant dinner off the ship, if only for a change of pace.  Evenings in Pinhao are full of wine and good cheer.  Our good ship AmaVida is a short walk from the town’s restaurants and cafes. 

Join us!   To register online visit: www.toursandwine.com/madrona  We have an EXCLUSIVE $500 per cabin ($250 per person) discount for members of the Madrona Vineyards Group on board. A $500 deposit per person will hold your cabin.

NOTE: Special activities and meals are included.  You must book through our tour operator, Expanding Horizons of Tustin CA, to be part of the Madrona Vineyards Douro Group.

With questions call Georgia Shoemaker at our tour operator Expanding Horizons, email Georgia@Expanding-Horizons.com  or call 1-714-988-6408

Sincerely,

Paul & Maggie Bush

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To Filter or Not To Filter…That is the Question!

OK, so maybe I’m taking some liberty with Shakespeare’s quote here, but it is a bit of an ongoing question in the winery. And with a couple of conversations I had yesterday with wine lovers, I thought a quick primer here was in order.

Getting to the core of the subject, the answer to the question above is, “We filter when the wine needs to be filtered!” There, wasn’t that super insightful and helpful?

So there are a few background aspects that are necessary to build up a basic knowledge about filtering.

  1. There is active and passive filtration of wine. Active filtration is the process of filtering a wine through a piece of equipment and passive filtration is time and gravity slowly clarifying a wine.
  2. There are multiple ways to “active” filter wine including pad filtrations, crossflow filtrations, and sterile membrane filtrations.
  3. All active filtrations, no matter how delicate the process, can impact the wine. The basic concept is that you are filtering something out of the wine (usually solids of some sort for clarity, but also yeast, malolactic cultures, etc.). Thus filtering can also pull out some aspects of fruit or complexity.
  4. The more active filtrations you do on a wine, the more chance you risk of stripping out characters in the wine.
  5. Filtering wine (especially sterile filtering at the bottling line) improves the stability of the wine in the bottle. (There’s less chance for refermentation if that is a concern.)
  6. Wines with residual sugar and/or an incomplete malolactic fermentation usually need to be actively filtered for stability reasons.
  7. The American wine consuming public likes clear wines (no hazy or cloudy characters)
  8. Even filtered wines may throw a sediment over time.

So now, let’s get back to the original answer. At Madroña, we filter wines when we think we need to filter wines. A lot of it has to do with the basic stability of the wine, but it also has to do with where the wine is being sold and who is going to be drinking it.

Ideally, I would never filter wine. That is the purest expression of what the wine has in terms of fruit and flavor. And generally, the aging in the barrels slowly clarifies the wine as gravity settles out the solids.

So you’ll find that our highest end wines, the Single Vineyard Collection, are unfiltered. This is done for several reasons.

  1. We want that purest expression of the vineyards in your glass.
  2. Most wine consumers paying $50+ for wine understand the unfiltered nature and can expect a hint of sediment or cloudiness (if it’s there for insuring a better quality of fruit).
  3. We can expect that consumers looking for unfiltered wines know that cellaring temperatures in their houses are very important.
  4. These wines are hand-sold at the tasting room by a knowledgeable staff in small quantities. This gives us a chance to educate, and the risk of issues in the wine is minimal.

But not all wines should be bottled unfiltered.

First and foremost, if a wines still has fermentable sugar or fermentable malic acid, we would not bottle it unfiltered. There is too much risk that the wine would referment in the bottle.

Secondly, we need to take into account how the wine is going to be sold. If we will be sending the wine to distributors or stores to sell where the temperatures can vary on the shelves, we would filter the wine. The fluctuating temperatures, especially warmer, could potentially provide a hospitable environment for yeast to start working in the wine once again. Ever have a sparkly wine with some cloudiness? That’s it!

Lastly, we need to consider the final consumer in all this. Not everyone knows all the ins and outs of wine and how to store it. We need to assume that someone is buying a bottle of Madroña off the store shelf, taking it home, storing it on their kitchen counter, and then still want it to be crystal clear when they serve it. Filtering is some insurance that they will have a pleasurable experience with our wine.

Now, two last items. One. If you remember my push to get a crossflow filter here at Madroña, it is an expensive piece of equipment we bought several years ago. I wanted this type of filter because I only have to filter a wine once (instead of multiple times with pad filtrations), and I find the wines “less beat-up” after filtering than with traditional filtrations. That has allowed me the luxury of filtering some of the high-end Cabernets and not losing any of the subtle characters in the wine.

The second item is that filtering wine will not prevent all sediment or turbidity from forming. The crystals on the cork (tartrates) can form over time by the tartaric acid “salting out” with temperature (generally cooler temperatures) and pressure changes. This is not a quality aspect as the wine would not have been cold stabilized in the winery (like all red wines!). And remember that you can save up these crystals and make cookies as it’s just cream of tartar!

Older reds too may have sediments due to aspect binding up in the wine (pigments with tartrates, etc.). Just be careful pulling the cork out as the sediment will have collected on the cork if the bottle is aging upside down.

And finally, instabilities with proteins in the wine such as heat and polysaccharides instabilities are not filterable if they haven’t already formed. But all of these instabilities (including the tartrates) are purely cosmetic and have nothing to do with the flavors of the wines. But that’s all for another blog!

So back to the basic question, “To filter or not to filter?” Well, I stand by, “We only filter when we need to filter, and even that we try to do sparingly!” Sound good?

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